The World Bank's social and environmental safeguard policies were recently updated in the new Environmental and Social Framework. Although elements of the new policy have the potential to benefit conservation, Concerns have been raised that the policy is now too flexible and lacks clear definitions for key terms.
Land use intensification frequently has unintended impacts on ecosystem services. Here, we we examine three case studies in rural Mozambique. Drawing on interviews, focus group discussions, 1576 household surveys and geospatial data from 27 Mozambican villages, we assess how wellbeing and inequality change with three common land use intensification pathways.